Wavefront sensors are simple and robust phase sensors at the basis of adaptive optics in astronomy and bio-imaging. Adaptive optics has been introduced in bio-imaging to compensate smooth aberrations mostly arising from the refractive index mismatch at the interface with biological tissues. The resulting improved image sharpness allows optimizing multi-photon imaging at rather shallow depth.
However, biological tissues are also scattering light, resulting in an exponential decay of ballistic light energy with penetration depth. Compensating for scattering requires characterizing non-smooth complex wavefields exhibiting so-called “optical vortices”. In this work, we demonstrate the first quantitative experimental complex wavefront reconstruction using a simple wavefront sensor.
Pascal Berto, Institut de la Vision, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, INSERM